## Introduction

C++0x was recently furnished with new algorithms. Some of them fill in gaps in the C++03 Standard Library whereas others are convenience algorithms that simplify recurrent programming tasks by using more intuitive parameter lists and a cleaner interface. In the following sections I will demonstrate 10 such algorithms, all of which save one are brand new.

## New Copy Algorithms

The classic copy algorithms, e.g., `copy()`

, `uninitialized_copy()`

etc., take two iterators indicating the beginning and the end of a range, and a single output iterator marking the beginning of the output range. However, in many programming tasks, it's more convenient to define the copy operation by specifying a starting point and a count instead of using starting and ending points. C++0x introduces a new family of `copy_n()`

algorithms that copy `n`

elements. Suppose you want to copy an array of 5 elements to another array. Using `copy_n()`

, it's simple:

#include <algorithm> int source[5]={0,12,34,50,80}; int target[5]; //copy 5 elements from source to target copy_n(source,5,target);

C++0x also provides a new version of `uninitialized_copy()`

that takes a count. `uninitialized_copy_n()`

is chiefly useful in low-level memory management operations where you want to separate the allocation of raw memory from the construction operation. The following `uninitialized_copy_n()`

call copies a POD array to another array:

#include <algorithm> const int n=4; int first[n]={0,1,2,3}; int result[n]; uninitialized_copy_n(first, n, result);

Finally, `copy_if()`

is a new convenience algorithm that selectively copies every element that satisfies the predicate p within the range [first,last). In the following example, `copy_if()`

copies only the positive numbers from the range [first, last) to result:

#include <algorithm> struct ispositive //predicate { bool operator()(int val) const {return val>=0;} }; int first[n]={0,-1,-2,3}; int result[n]={0}; copy_if(first, first+n, result, ispositive());

## All of, Any of and None of

The Standard Library now defines algorithms that mimic the set theory operations `all_of()`

, `any_of()`

and `none_of()`

. Given a range and a predicate p, the algorithm determines whether p is true for:

- All of the elements within the range (all_of()).
- At least one element within the range (any_of()).
- No elements within the range (none_of()).

The following examples apply the predicate `ispositive()`

to the range [first, first+n) and uses `all_of()`

, `any_of()`

and `none_of()`

to examine the range's properties:

#include <algorithm> //are all of the elements positive? all_of(first, first+n, ispositive()); //false //is there at least one positive element? any_of(first, first+n, ispositive());//true // are none of the elements positive? none_of(first, first+n, ispositive()); //false

## Partition

A range whose elements that satisfy a certain predicate precede the elements that fail to satisfy it is a partition. C++03 defines the `partition()`

algorithms for partitioning a range. C++0x introduced the new algorithm `is_partitioned()`

that examines whether a given range makes a valid partition. The following listing examines whether a given range is a partition. If it's not, it calls `partition()`

and examines the range again:

if(!is_partitioned(first, first+n, ispositive())); partition(first, first+n, ispositive()); bool b= is_partitioned(first, first+n, ispositive());//now true To detect the partition point in a partitioned range, use the new algorithm partition_point(). partition_point() returns an iterator to the first element that doesn't satisfy the specified predicate: int firstnegative= *(partition_point(first, first+n, ispositive()));

## Iota

The new algorithm iota() was inspired by an APL operator with the same name. iota() creates a range of sequentially increasing values, as if by assigning an initial value to *first, then incrementing that value using prefix ++. `iota()`

takes two iterators marking a range, and an initial value. This algorithm is particularly useful for testing since permutations of {1, 2,...N} are frequently used as test input. In the following example, `iota()`

assigns the consecutive values {10,11,12,13,14} to the array arr, and {'a', 'b', 'c'} to the char array c. Notice that you need to #include <numeric> to use `iota()`

:

include <numeric> int a[5]={0}; char c[3]={0}; iota(a, a+5, 10); //changes a to {10,11,12,13,14} iota(c, c+3, 'a'); //{'a','b','c'}

## Conclusion

Technically speaking, some of the algorithms that I've presented seem redundant since you can achieve the same result by using a different algorithm and a different list of arguments. For example, copy_if() is the inverse of remove_copy_if(). That is, copying all elements that satisfy a predicate p is the same as not copying all elements that satisfy !p. However, it's more convenient and certainly less confusing to use `copy_if()`

directly. A complete list of the new Standard Library algorithms is available here. With respect to vendors' support, **Microsoft's Visual Studio 2010** already supports all of the algorithms exemplified above. Other implementations support these algorithms partially so you should check the documentation of your implementation's Standard Library.

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